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Blog 2018-10-16T19:22:55+00:00

Machine Type Communication (MTC)

Machine Type Communication (MTC) Machine Type Communication (MTC) Wireless subscribers use 4G LTE networks in a variety of ways. For example, voice calls, emails, web browsing, streaming video, messaging and gaming are quite popular. In general, the majority of communication methods in use today involve human interaction.  5G networks are expected to serve communication between machines in addition to human interaction. Several studies predict tens of billions of devices to be connected to some IP-based network. Hence, wireless networks need to support machine communications for massive Internet of Things (IoT). For e.g., factory automation of manufacturing, surveillance cameras, smart wearables, smart cars, intelligent traffic controllers and smart cash registers are expected to be connected to the wireless network [...]

By | February 11th, 2019|5G Technology|0 Comments

Networking in the Virtual World

Networking in the Virtual World Networking in the Virtual World In the figure, we have two VMs. One is a Web server and the other is an online store. In the traditional network, these services would be located in two different physical servers requiring network connectivity. Since these VMs are all loaded onto the same standard server over a hypervisor, they make up a small self-contained network. Included in the many roles of a hypervisor is that of providing a switching function called a virtual switch (vSwitch), which is a software version of an Ethernet switch. This enables communication between the different local VMs. Internal communication is achieved by logical connecting each VM to the hypervisor through a [...]

By | February 9th, 2019|Virtualization & Cloud Computing|0 Comments

Functions of Hypervisor

Functions of Hypervisor Functions of Hypervisor The hypervisor’s responsibilities are more extensive than it might seem. In fact, it may be the most important concept in virtualization. It functions as a software module that provides mapping between the physical networking environment. Functions of the hypervisor are as follows: 1. Create VMs: The hypervisor describes how the physical networking environment can be partitioned into multiple VMs. It manages these interfaces and presents to the customer the appearance of the availability of an autonomous networking environment. This role is primarily focused toward the application software. 2. Allocation of Hardware (HW) Resources: As an extension of VM creation, the hypervisor dictates instructions to the physical HW as to how to operate [...]

By | February 9th, 2019|Virtualization & Cloud Computing|0 Comments

Virtual Machines & Hypervisor

Virtual Machines (VMs) & Hypervisor Virtual Machines & Hypervisor The virtualization software has the role of deploying software-based Virtual Machines (VMs). The idea is to create a software version of a hardware-based server or application. Though the functionality may be identical, the way it interworks with other functions is quite different. The decision to hard-code the application into the hardware is a permanent decision. The Virtual Machine behaves and operates almost identical to its stand-alone purpose-built hardware-based server “twin.” The hypervisor has multiple roles, one of which is to translate the individual guest OS instructions into the equivalent instructions required for the host OS and the physical hardware. The second key role of the hypervisor is to schedule [...]

By | January 30th, 2019|Virtualization & Cloud Computing|0 Comments

Why Virtualization?

Why Virtualization? Before virtualization, there are two servers. The hardware functionality is managed by an Operating System (OS), referred to here as the host OS ( or the native operating system for the hardware). The OS provides the rules and procedures that enables an application to communicate through a network. In the scenario, the application shown has full use of the hardware resources. When we apply virtualization, the architecture changes. A single server has been logically partitioned into two independent Virtual Machines (VMs), VM1 and VM2. What is common between the two VMs is the physical hardware. What’s different is the inclusion of independent VMs each thinking they have total control of the server. Associated with each VM [...]

By | January 19th, 2019|Virtualization & Cloud Computing|0 Comments

Coverage Optimization Data

Coverage Optimization Data- LTE RF Optimization Coverage Optimization Data During the time of initial deployment, when the number of subscriber data points are low, the preferred data source is LTE scanner logs due to their resolution and precision, and the volume of measurements they contain. The scanner has a distinct advantage over UE logs because the scanner is permitted to scan all DL RS. If scanner data is not available, then UE logs can be used instead. Propagation prediction plots also can be used, though their predictive nature limits their usefulness. On the other hand, eNB logs are also useful as the eNB receives Measurement Report messages from UEs and these messages have measured received signal strength/ quality [...]

By | December 31st, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Reference Signal (RS) Pollution Scenarios

Reference Signal (RS) Pollution Scenarios- LTE RF Optimization Typical Reference Signal (RS) Pollution Scenarios DL RS pollution is a situation in which there are two or more additional cells with DL RS of comparable values to the serving cell. The difference in dB of these signals determine how bad the pollution is. RS Pollution can happen throughout a network. Dense urban areas (where coverage tends to be good) tend to have more sites in close proximity, so there is opportunity for under-optimized sites to show up in unintended areas. In suburban areas, cells tend to be farther apart (larger footprint), and there is less tall clutter, which can result in overshooting signals. Certain geographical topography can prove conducive [...]

By | December 28th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Reference Signal Pollution with example

Reference Signal Pollution with example- LTE RF Optimization Reference Signal Pollution with example The concept of Reference Signal (RS) pollution is new in the industry; some engineers still refer to RS pollution as pilot pollution (a term inherited from 3G systems). In general, it is known that RS pollution is bad but it is important to keep in mind the reasons why it is bad. For this workshop, assume the definition of DL RS pollution is a situation in which there are two or more additional cells with DL RS of comparable values to the serving cell. The difference in dB of these signals determine how bad the pollution is. Please note that this definition may vary for [...]

By | December 27th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

What limits the Coverage?

What limits the Coverage? - LTE RF Optimization What limits the Coverage? Downlink coverage is limited by the maximum amount of power that can be applied to the downlink reference signals. However, the LTE standards do not specify how much power the various channels and reference signals should use; instead it is up to the eNB vendor to develop the appropriate algorithms and controls. In general, the goal is to keep a constant Energy Per Resource Element (EPRE) so that the UEs can use RS measurements to estimate the power of other downlink channels. However, the EPRE is not exactly the same in all resource elements because different modulation schemes require different power levels. Uplink power is distributed [...]

By | December 26th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

What is “Right” Coverage?

What is “Right” Coverage? What is “Right” Coverage? When tuning for coverage, it is important to create the right coverage at the right location. The right coverage includes: Elimination of coverage gaps: As coverage is tuned, it is important not to open coverage holes. The UE should have enough power to transmit all UL channels (Demodulating Reference Signal (DM RS), PUCCH and/or PUSCH) successfully to the eNB. Minimization of pollution: Although definitions vary, RS pollution can be described generally as the state in which three or more additional RS are received at a location at roughly the same strength. For the purposes of this course, we usually use the following definition: A point at which three or more [...]

By | December 22nd, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments
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