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Blog 2018-10-16T19:22:55+00:00

UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP)

UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) is measured by a UE during the procedure of cell selection, cell reselection in idle mode, and handover, and is an important factor in decision making. RSRP linear measures the average power of resource elements over cell-specific reference signals. When the eNB configures the measurement, it usually gives the measurement bandwidth. The measurement is usually carried on antenna port 0 of the eNB, although an eNB may use multiple antennas, in which case there are reference signals transmitting from each antenna port. If antenna port 1 can be reliably detected, it may also be used. If there are multiple [...]

By | December 14th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Cell-specific DL Reference Signal

Cell-specific DL Reference Signal Cell-specific DL Reference Signal A downlink (DL) Reference Signal (RS) is inserted into the resource blocks and transmitted together with data. Since the RS is known to both the eNb and UE, the UE will use the RS to estimate the channel condition first, then demodulate the data based on the estimated channel response. As shown in figure, each RS occupies one resource element and is distributed in both the time and frequency domains. This two dimension distribution helps with the accuracy of channel estimation. The channel condition varies from time to time and from frequency to frequency. Two physical consecutive resource blocks within the same time slot may experience different interference and have [...]

By | December 13th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Coverage of an LTE Cell

Coverage of an LTE Cell Coverage of an LTE Cell LTE Cell’s coverage is defined to be the area over which both the eNB & the UE can successfully decode the Reference Signals (RS). Downlink Reference Signals provide a known or predictable pattern that allows the UE to decode the downlink physical channels and estimate channel conditions. The UE also provides RS to allow the network to estimate UL channel conditions and coherently demodulate its transmissions. If any of these signals cannot be decoded, coverage is limited. The decoding of the DL RS depends on the resource elements’ RSRP. Since the RSRP is measured on the resource elements that carry the RS and not on the resource elements [...]

By | December 11th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Cell Availability KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

3GPP Cell Availability KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I 3GPP Cell Availability KPI in LTE LTE Cell availability is simply the amount of time the cell is available to users over the measurement time. A cell is considered available if it can provide E-RAB service to the UE. The time the cell is available is typically derived by taking the OSS measurement period and subtracting the amount of time the cell was unavailable. In addition, the amount of time the cell is unavailable should include both automatic outages (e.g., alarm triggered) and manual outages such as maintenance or software/ hardware upgrades. You may also like to go through What is RF Optimization?, 4G-LTE KPIs, 3GPP Accessibility KPI, Retainability KPI in LTE, Throughput [...]

By | December 10th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Mobility KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

Mobility KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I Mobility KPI in LTE Mobility is defined as the product of the handover preparation success rate and the handover execution success rate. The handover preparation success rate is derived by taking the number of successful handover preparations and dividing it by the number of attempts. The handover preparation attempt is typically pegged when the source eNB sends either an X2 Handover Request message, or an S1 Handover Required message. The source eNB reception of an X2 Handover Request Ack message, or an S1 Handover Command message, is considered a successful handover preparation. The handover execution success rate is calculated in a similar manner by taking the number of successful handover executions [...]

By | December 8th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Throughput KPI & Latency KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

Throughput KPI & Latency KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I Integrity in LTE Network- Throughput KPI & Latency KPI in LTE LTE IP throughput is the measure of the data payload that was successfully transmitted over the amount of time required to transmit the data. Because of the bursty nature of data, and to be independent of file size, the specification requires that the determination of transmission time does not include idle TTIs when the buffer was not empty. As shown in the figure, only the time samples when data is present in the buffer are used to determine transmission time. The calculation of the total transferred data volume defined in the 3GPP specification reference is shown [...]

By | December 6th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Retainability KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

Retainability KPI in LTE Retainability KPI in LTE LTE Retainability is the measure of drops per second where the definition of drop is either a Mobility Management Entity (MME)- initiated E-RAB abnormal release or an eNB initiated E-RAB release. In both cases, data must be present in either the DL or UL buffer for the release to be considered abnormal. In the case of an MME-initiated abnormal release, it is typically triggered by the eNB reception of an S1 E-RAB Release Command Message from the MME. If the abnormal release is initiated by the eNB, it will be the transmission of an S1 E-RAB Release Indication message that will identify the drop. Session time is defined as the [...]

By | December 5th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Accessibility KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

Accessibility KPI in LTE - RF Optimization Part I Accessibility KPI in LTE Typically, the accessibility KPI refers to the initial establishment of the LTE E-RAB. Not only does this include the successful establishment of the default EPS bearer, but also takes into account the RRC Connection success rate as well as the successful establishment of an S1 signaling connection. The RRC is used when an idle UE first communicates with the network, in order to set up a signaling path (an RRC connection) between the UE and the eNB. The resulting set of signaling radio bearers allows the UE & the eNB to exchange RRC and other signaling messages quickly and efficiently. The RRC connection defines SRB 1, [...]

By | December 4th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

4G LTE KPIs- RF Optimization Part I

4G-LTE KPIs- RF Optimization Part I 4G-LTE KPIs Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) can vary widely, depending on what information is available from the equipment and on what is important to the operator. Nonetheless, they tend to fall into a few broad categories. For LTE performance, the most commonly used KPIs are: Accessibility: The ability of a subscriber to get access to the network to establish a default bearer. Setup failures track how often a user tried to set up a session, but was unable to do so, while paging success indicates how often a subscriber in the area could be reached. Retainability: The ability of a subscriber involved in a session to stay up and running. The intent [...]

By | December 3rd, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

RF Optimization- Introduction

RF Optimization- Introduction What is RF Optimization? RF Optimization is one of the key challenges in any Cellular Network. Optimization is a continuous process and helps in understanding the shortcomings in the Network. These shortcomings in terms of coverage, QoS can be set right with appropriate measures. Optimization helps in spectral efficiency. It is a continuous and iterative process of improving over all network quality. Area of interest is divided into smaller areas called clusters to make optimization and follow up processes easier to handle. RF Optimization includes: Defining missing neighbor relations Proposing new sites or sector additions with Before & After coverage plots Proposing antenna azimuth changes Proposing antenna tilt changes Proposing antenna type changes BTS Equipment/Filter [...]

By | December 3rd, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments
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