Why Virtualization? Before virtualization, there are two servers. The hardware functionality is managed by an Operating System (OS), referred to here as the host OS ( or the native operating system for the hardware). The OS provides the rules and procedures that enables an application to communicate through a network. In the scenario, the application shown has full use of the hardware resources. When we apply virtualization, the architecture changes. A single server has been logically partitioned into two independent Virtual Machines (VMs), VM1 and VM2. What is common between the two VMs is the physical hardware. What’s different [...]
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Coverage Optimization Data- LTE RF Optimization Coverage Optimization Data During the time of initial deployment, when the number of subscriber data points are low, the preferred data source is LTE scanner logs due to their resolution and precision, and the volume of measurements they contain. The scanner has a distinct advantage over UE logs because the scanner is permitted to scan all DL RS. If scanner data is not available, then UE logs can be used instead. Propagation prediction plots also can be used, though their predictive nature limits their usefulness. On the other hand, eNB logs are also [...]
Reference Signal (RS) Pollution Scenarios- LTE RF Optimization Typical Reference Signal (RS) Pollution Scenarios DL RS pollution is a situation in which there are two or more additional cells with DL RS of comparable values to the serving cell. The difference in dB of these signals determine how bad the pollution is. RS Pollution can happen throughout a network. Dense urban areas (where coverage tends to be good) tend to have more sites in close proximity, so there is opportunity for under-optimized sites to show up in unintended areas. In suburban areas, cells tend to be farther apart (larger [...]
Reference Signal Pollution with example- LTE RF Optimization Reference Signal Pollution with example The concept of Reference Signal (RS) pollution is new in the industry; some engineers still refer to RS pollution as pilot pollution (a term inherited from 3G systems). In general, it is known that RS pollution is bad but it is important to keep in mind the reasons why it is bad. For this workshop, assume the definition of DL RS pollution is a situation in which there are two or more additional cells with DL RS of comparable values to the serving cell. The difference [...]
What limits the Coverage? - LTE RF Optimization What limits the Coverage? Downlink coverage is limited by the maximum amount of power that can be applied to the downlink reference signals. However, the LTE standards do not specify how much power the various channels and reference signals should use; instead it is up to the eNB vendor to develop the appropriate algorithms and controls. In general, the goal is to keep a constant Energy Per Resource Element (EPRE) so that the UEs can use RS measurements to estimate the power of other downlink channels. However, the EPRE is not [...]
What is “Right” Coverage? What is “Right” Coverage? When tuning for coverage, it is important to create the right coverage at the right location. The right coverage includes: Elimination of coverage gaps: As coverage is tuned, it is important not to open coverage holes. The UE should have enough power to transmit all UL channels (Demodulating Reference Signal (DM RS), PUCCH and/or PUSCH) successfully to the eNB. Minimization of pollution: Although definitions vary, RS pollution can be described generally as the state in which three or more additional RS are received at a location at roughly the same strength. [...]
Coverage Analysis- LTE Coverage Optimization Coverage Analysis- LTE Coverage Optimization LTE may use a variety of frequency planning options. Examples include frequency reuse of 1 (N=1), static partial frequency reuse and soft frequency reuse. However, due to spectrum availability, current implementations and deployment scenarios utilize N=1 frequency reuse, hence, inter-cell interference is an ever present issue. System performance and overall service quality are directly related to the degree to which interference can be controlled. However, some cell overlap is desirable to ensure the reliability of handoff between cells, and to accommodate load. Unfortunately, cell overlap decreases the amount of [...]