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Wireless Requirements of IoT


Wireless Requirements of IoT Wireless Requirements of IoT Supporting IoT applications via a cellular network enables the cellular service provider to enter into new market segments. Customer growth has, in general, limited upward potential because smartphones are already quite widespread. several industries can derive tremendous benefits from the QoS, mobility and reliability aspects of cellular networks. Hence, to support such IoT applications, the wireless networks need enhancements such as support for massive no. of machines, efficient support for short data bursts, long battery life, deep indoor coverage and low cost devices. The capacity of the wireless network needs to [...]

Wireless Requirements of IoT 2019-03-07T13:29:40+05:30

Mission Critical MTC


Mission Critical MTC Mission Critical MTC Some MTC applications are mission critical and have more stringent performance requirements compared to most other applications. An example application for mission critical MTC is tactile Internet, where remote robotic control is used for factory automation. Such MTC imposes strict requirements on latency, availability and reliability. The target for one-way latency from the sensor to the actuator is defined to be 1ms. Such ultra-low latency would require enhancements such as shorter transmit time interval (TTI) and reduced complexity of encoding and decoding (e.g., block coding instead of Turbo coding). A high system availability [...]

Mission Critical MTC 2019-03-07T13:31:52+05:30

ProSe : Direct Communication


ProSe : Direct Communication ProSe : Direct Communication When the Ues involved in ProSe communication are served by different eNBs and the network coverage is available, the system can decide to use ProSe communication by using the control information between the UE, eNB and the EPC, as shown by the solid arrows. The eNBs coordinate between themselves either through EPC or directly as shown by the dotted arrow. Likewise, the Ues can exchange additional signaling information  directly, via the ProSe direct communication path. In general, the Ues can use LTE air interface or Wi-Fi air interface for direct communication. [...]

ProSe : Direct Communication 2019-03-07T13:49:52+05:30

ProSe : Direct Discovery


ProSe : Direct Discovery ProSe : Direct Discovery Direct Discovery can be open or restricted. In the open method, no specific permission is needed from the UE being discovered, whereas in the restricted case, UEs being discovered need to give specific permission. ProSe discovery can also be used as a stand-alone service for certain applications, such as find the nearest café, mall or an ATM. Direct Discovery can be made in two ways: a.A UE can announce its presence to other devices in the proximity by broadcasting Discovery messages at pre-defined intervals. The monitoring Ues that are interested in [...]

ProSe : Direct Discovery 2019-03-07T13:52:13+05:30

ProSe Architecture


ProSe Architecture ProSe Architecture To support group calling, the LTE architecture is enhanced by adding the additional nodes such as a BM-SC, MBMS GW and a Group Communication Service Application Server (GCS AS). These additions to the LTE architecture are called Group Communication System Enablers (GCSE). In place of the GCS AS, a ProSe Application Server is introduced. To facilitate discovery of a UE by the EPC, a secure User Plane Location (SUPL) Location Platform (SLP) is added. The interface between a ProSe-enabled UE and the ProSe Application Server is used for any signaling at the application layer level. [...]

ProSe Architecture 2019-03-07T13:57:41+05:30

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)


Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) It is one of the alternatives, the industry is exploring to OFDMA to further increase spectral efficiency. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) involves overlapping the use of subcarriers in a cell for different users to make more radio resources available and thereby increase overall capacity and throughput. Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) is implemented at UE receivers. The optimal order for decoding is in the order of the increasing channel gain normalized by the noise and inter-cell interference power. The UE, close to the Enb, relies on SIC to remove UE 2 interference [...]

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) 2019-03-07T13:59:39+05:30

Device-to-Device (D2D) Communication


Device-to-Device (D2D) Communication Device-to-Device (D2D) Communication Voice and data traffic between two mobile devices usually go from one mobile device to the radio network, from the radio network to the core network, and from the radio network to the other  mobile device. However, Device-to-Device (D2D) communication allows two mobile devices to directly exchange voice or data traffic without this traffic traveling through the network. D2D communication allows communication between the devices that are within a pre-defined proximity range such as 20-500 m. D2D communication is part of the overall framework of Proximity Services (ProSe) that includes several other aspects [...]

Device-to-Device (D2D) Communication 2019-03-07T14:02:50+05:30

The World as we know it is changing


The World as we know it is changing The World as we know it is changing Wireless subscribers use 4G LTE networks in a variety of ways. For example, voice calls, emails, web browsing, streaming video, messaging and gaming are quite popular. In general, the majority of communication methods in use today involve human interaction.  5G networks are expected to serve communication between machines in addition to human interaction. Several studies predict tens of billions of devices to be connected to some IP-based network. Hence, wireless networks need to support machine communications for massive Internet of Things (IoT). For [...]

The World as we know it is changing 2019-03-07T14:04:48+05:30

Example Applications of D2D Communication


Example Applications of D2D Communication Example Applications of D2D Communication D2D Communication is very useful in a variety of scenarios. Some of these scenarios today are served with non-cellular mechanisms. However, support for these scenarios would open up new market segments for cellular service providers. Friends and relatives and colleagues can be automatically discovered within the target proximity. Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication can help alleviate traffic congestion and even accidents. Shops can send out real-time advertisements about their sale to interested wireless  subscribers. Public Safety personnel, such as firemen and medical staff, can communicate with one another when needed. To get [...]

Example Applications of D2D Communication 2019-03-07T14:21:07+05:30

From MTC to Enhanced MTC (eMTC)


From MTC to Enhanced MTC (eMTC) From MTC to Enhanced MTC (eMTC) 3GPP is aiming for further reduction in complexity and power consumption MTC UEs compared to Release 12 MTC by defining new performance requirements in Release 13 and beyond. Specifically, from the basic MTC to enhanced MTC (eMTC), 3GPP is aiming for the following goals: a.75% modem complexity reduction compared to Category 1 UE, b.Reduced UE receive bandwidth to 1.4 MHz, c.Battery life of 10 years or more, and d.15-20 dB coverage enhancement. Example areas of emphasis to optimize power consumption include discontinuous reception (DRX), channel feedback, simplified [...]

From MTC to Enhanced MTC (eMTC) 2019-03-07T14:33:55+05:30
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