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Blog 2018-10-16T19:22:55+00:00

Coverage Analysis- LTE Coverage Optimization

Coverage Analysis- LTE Coverage Optimization Coverage Analysis- LTE Coverage Optimization LTE may use a variety of frequency planning options. Examples include frequency reuse of 1 (N=1), static partial frequency reuse and soft frequency reuse. However, due to spectrum availability, current implementations and deployment scenarios utilize N=1 frequency reuse, hence, inter-cell interference is an ever present issue. System performance and overall service quality are directly related to the degree to which interference can be controlled. However, some cell overlap is desirable to ensure the reliability of handoff between cells, and to accommodate load. Unfortunately, cell overlap decreases the amount of resource blocks that can be used at the call edge. The more cell overlap, the more resource blocks are [...]

By | December 20th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

UE Measurement- Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (SINR)

UE Measurement- Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (SINR) UE Measurement- Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (SINR) Due to the small range variability of RSRQ, coverage may not be determined based on this metric only. It can be used as an auxiliary metric for handover decisions, but it lacks enough range changes to be used to determine coverage. In order to address this issue, Reference Signal – Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (RS-SINR) can be used to measure the SINR of the resource elements that carry the reference signals. This metric, not defined in the standard, helps identifying strong and weak points of achievable data rate, providing a good assessment the coverage. As in the case [...]

By | December 18th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ)

UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) RSRP measures the average received power of the reference signals. It is a Received Signal Strength (RSSI)- type of measurement. It does not provide information about interference. In some areas, even though the RSRP is high, the ultimate user experience may not be good since the interference is also high. In order to address this issue, Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) is defined to measure C/I of the reference signal. In the equation, the numerator represents the received power of reference signal. The “N” is used to make sure the measurement of RSRP and carrier RSSI are done on the same bandwidth. The denominator [...]

By | December 17th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP)

UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) UE Measurement- Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) is measured by a UE during the procedure of cell selection, cell reselection in idle mode, and handover, and is an important factor in decision making. RSRP linear measures the average power of resource elements over cell-specific reference signals. When the eNB configures the measurement, it usually gives the measurement bandwidth. The measurement is usually carried on antenna port 0 of the eNB, although an eNB may use multiple antennas, in which case there are reference signals transmitting from each antenna port. If antenna port 1 can be reliably detected, it may also be used. If there are multiple [...]

By | December 14th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Cell-specific DL Reference Signal

Cell-specific DL Reference Signal Cell-specific DL Reference Signal A downlink (DL) Reference Signal (RS) is inserted into the resource blocks and transmitted together with data. Since the RS is known to both the eNb and UE, the UE will use the RS to estimate the channel condition first, then demodulate the data based on the estimated channel response. As shown in figure, each RS occupies one resource element and is distributed in both the time and frequency domains. This two dimension distribution helps with the accuracy of channel estimation. The channel condition varies from time to time and from frequency to frequency. Two physical consecutive resource blocks within the same time slot may experience different interference and have [...]

By | December 13th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Coverage of an LTE Cell

Coverage of an LTE Cell Coverage of an LTE Cell LTE Cell’s coverage is defined to be the area over which both the eNB & the UE can successfully decode the Reference Signals (RS). Downlink Reference Signals provide a known or predictable pattern that allows the UE to decode the downlink physical channels and estimate channel conditions. The UE also provides RS to allow the network to estimate UL channel conditions and coherently demodulate its transmissions. If any of these signals cannot be decoded, coverage is limited. The decoding of the DL RS depends on the resource elements’ RSRP. Since the RSRP is measured on the resource elements that carry the RS and not on the resource elements [...]

By | December 11th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Cell Availability KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

3GPP Cell Availability KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I 3GPP Cell Availability KPI in LTE LTE Cell availability is simply the amount of time the cell is available to users over the measurement time. A cell is considered available if it can provide E-RAB service to the UE. The time the cell is available is typically derived by taking the OSS measurement period and subtracting the amount of time the cell was unavailable. In addition, the amount of time the cell is unavailable should include both automatic outages (e.g., alarm triggered) and manual outages such as maintenance or software/ hardware upgrades. You may also like to go through What is RF Optimization?, 4G-LTE KPIs, 3GPP Accessibility KPI, Retainability KPI in LTE, Throughput [...]

By | December 10th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Mobility KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

Mobility KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I Mobility KPI in LTE Mobility is defined as the product of the handover preparation success rate and the handover execution success rate. The handover preparation success rate is derived by taking the number of successful handover preparations and dividing it by the number of attempts. The handover preparation attempt is typically pegged when the source eNB sends either an X2 Handover Request message, or an S1 Handover Required message. The source eNB reception of an X2 Handover Request Ack message, or an S1 Handover Command message, is considered a successful handover preparation. The handover execution success rate is calculated in a similar manner by taking the number of successful handover executions [...]

By | December 8th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Throughput KPI & Latency KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

Throughput KPI & Latency KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I Integrity in LTE Network- Throughput KPI & Latency KPI in LTE LTE IP throughput is the measure of the data payload that was successfully transmitted over the amount of time required to transmit the data. Because of the bursty nature of data, and to be independent of file size, the specification requires that the determination of transmission time does not include idle TTIs when the buffer was not empty. As shown in the figure, only the time samples when data is present in the buffer are used to determine transmission time. The calculation of the total transferred data volume defined in the 3GPP specification reference is shown [...]

By | December 6th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments

Retainability KPI in LTE- RF Optimization Part I

Retainability KPI in LTE Retainability KPI in LTE LTE Retainability is the measure of drops per second where the definition of drop is either a Mobility Management Entity (MME)- initiated E-RAB abnormal release or an eNB initiated E-RAB release. In both cases, data must be present in either the DL or UL buffer for the release to be considered abnormal. In the case of an MME-initiated abnormal release, it is typically triggered by the eNB reception of an S1 E-RAB Release Command Message from the MME. If the abnormal release is initiated by the eNB, it will be the transmission of an S1 E-RAB Release Indication message that will identify the drop. Session time is defined as the [...]

By | December 5th, 2018|4G-LTE Optimization Part-1|0 Comments
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